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CLI & GUI v0.17.1.3 'Oxygen Orion' released!

This is the CLI & GUI v0.17.1.3 'Oxygen Orion' point release. This release predominantly features bug fixes and performance improvements. Users, however, are recommended to upgrade, as it includes mitigations for the issue where transactions occasionally fail.

(Direct) download links (GUI)

(Direct) download links (CLI)

GPG signed hashes

We encourage users to check the integrity of the binaries and verify that they were signed by binaryFate's GPG key. A guide that walks you through this process can be found here for Windows and here for Linux and Mac OS X.
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA256 # This GPG-signed message exists to confirm the SHA256 sums of Monero binaries. # # Please verify the signature against the key for binaryFate in the # source code repository (/utils/gpg_keys). # # ## CLI 38a04a7bd00733e9d943edba3004e44730c0848fe5e8a4fca4cb29c12d1e6b2f monero-android-armv7-v0.17.1.3.tar.bz2 0e94f58572646992ee21f01d291211ed3608e8a46ecb6612b378a2188390dba0 monero-android-armv8-v0.17.1.3.tar.bz2 ae1a1b61d7b4a06690cb22a3389bae5122c8581d47f3a02d303473498f405a1a monero-freebsd-x64-v0.17.1.3.tar.bz2 57d6f9c25bd1dbc9d6b39fcfb13260b21c5594b4334e8ed3b8922108730ee2f0 monero-linux-armv7-v0.17.1.3.tar.bz2 a0419993fbc6a5ca11bcd2e825acef13e429824f4d8c7ba4ec73ac446d2af2fb monero-linux-armv8-v0.17.1.3.tar.bz2 cf3fb693339caed43a935c890d71ecab5b89c430e778dc5ef0c3173c94e5bf64 monero-linux-x64-v0.17.1.3.tar.bz2 d107384ff7b1f77ee4db93940dbfda24d6045bf59c43169bc81a0118e3986bfa monero-linux-x86-v0.17.1.3.tar.bz2 79557c8bee30b229bda90bb9ee494097d639d60948fc2ad87a029359b56b1b48 monero-mac-x64-v0.17.1.3.tar.bz2 3eee0d0e896fb426ef92a141a95e36cb33ca7d1e1db3c1d4cb7383994af43a59 monero-win-x64-v0.17.1.3.zip c9e9dde61b33adccd7e794eba8ba29d820817213b40a2571282309d25e64e88a monero-win-x86-v0.17.1.3.zip # ## GUI 15ad80b2abb18ac2521398c4dad9b8bfea2e6fc535cf4ebcc60d99b8042d4fb2 monero-gui-install-win-x64-v0.17.1.3.exe 3bed02f9db5b7b2fe4115a636fecf0c6ec9079dd4e9284c8ce2c67d4996e2a4a monero-gui-linux-x64-v0.17.1.3.tar.bz2 23405534c7973a8d6908b76121b81894dc853039c942d7527d254dfde0bd2e8f monero-gui-mac-x64-v0.17.1.3.dmg 0a49ccccb561445f3d7ec0087ddc83a8b76f424fb7d5e0d725222f3639375ec4 monero-gui-win-x64-v0.17.1.3.zip # # # ~binaryFate -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- iQIzBAEBCAAdFiEEgaxZH+nEtlxYBq/D8K9NRioL35IFAl+oVkkACgkQ8K9NRioL 35Lmpw//Xs09T4917sbnRH/DW/ovpRyjF9dyN1ViuWQW91pJb+E3i9TY+wU3q85k LyTihDB5pV+3nYgKPL9TlLfaytJIQG0vYHykPWHVmYmvoIs9BLarGwaU3bjO0rh9 ST5GDMdvxmQ5Y1LTwVfKkmBJw26DAs0xAvjBX44oRQjjuUdH6JdLPsqa5Kb++NCM b453m5s8bT3Cw6w0eJB1FQEyQ5BoDrwYcFzzsS1ag/C4Ylq0l6CZfEambfOQvdUi 7D5Rywfhiz2t7cfn7LaoXb74KDA/B1bL+R1/KhCuFqxRTOQzq9IxRywh4VptAAMU UR7jFHFijOMoyggIbkD48JmAjlBnqIyQJt4D5gbHe+tSaSoKdgoTGBAmIvaCZIng jfn9pTNzIJbTptsQhhyZqQQIH87D8BctZfX7pREjJmMNGwN2jFxXqUNqYTso20E6 YLtC1mkZBBZ294xHqT1mQpfznc6uVJhhoJpta0eKxkr1ahrGvWBDGZeVhLswnBcq 9dafAkR14rdK1naiCsygb6hMvBqBohVu/bWuhycJcv6XRvlP7UHkR6R8+s6U4Tk2 zaJERQF+cHQpEak5aEJIvDlb/mxteGyvPkPyL7UmADEQh3C4nREwkDSdnitYnF+e HxJZkshoC98+YCkWUP4+JYOOT158jKao3u0laEOxVGOrPz1Nc64= =Ys4h -----END PGP SIGNATURE----- 

Upgrading (GUI)

Note that you should be able to utilize the automatic updater in the GUI that was recently added. A pop-up will appear shortly with the new binary.
In case you want to update manually, you ought to perform the following steps:
  1. Download the new binaries (the .zip file (Windows) or the tar.bz2 file (Mac OS X and Linux)) from the direct download links in this thread or from the official website. If you run active AV (AntiVirus) software, I'd recommend to apply this guide -> https://monero.stackexchange.com/questions/10798/my-antivirus-av-software-blocks-quarantines-the-monero-gui-wallet-is-there
  2. Extract the new binaries (the .zip file (Windows) or the tar.bz2 file (Mac OS X and Linux) you just downloaded) to a new directory / folder of your liking.
  3. Open monero-wallet-gui. It should automatically load your "old" wallet.
If, for some reason, the GUI doesn't automatically load your old wallet, you can open it as follows:
[1] On the second page of the wizard (first page is language selection) choose Open a wallet from file
[2] Now select your initial / original wallet. Note that, by default, the wallet files are located in Documents\Monero\ (Windows), Users//Monero/ (Mac OS X), or home//Monero/ (Linux).
Lastly, note that a blockchain resync is not needed, i.e., it will simply pick up where it left off.

Upgrading (CLI)

You ought to perform the following steps:
  1. Download the new binaries (the .zip file (Windows) or the tar.bz2 file (Mac OS X and Linux)) from the official website, the direct download links in this thread, or Github.
  2. Extract the new binaries to a new directory of your liking.
  3. Copy over the wallet files from the old directory (i.e. the v0.15.x.x, v0.16.x.x, or v0.17.x.x directory).
  4. Start monerod and monero-wallet-cli (in case you have to use your wallet).
Note that a blockchain resync is not needed. Thus, if you open monerod-v0.17.1.3, it will simply pick up where it left off.

Release notes (GUI)

Some highlights of this minor release are:
  • Android support (experimental)
  • Linux binary is now reproducible (experimental)
  • Simple mode: transaction reliability improvements
  • New transaction confirmation dialog
  • Wizard: minor design changes
  • Linux: high DPI support
  • Fix "can't connect to daemon" issue
  • Minor bug fixes
Some highlights of this major release are:
  • Support for CLSAG transaction format
  • Socks5 proxy support, automatically enabled on Tails
  • Simple mode transactions are sent trough local daemon, improved reliability
  • Portable mode, save wallets + config to "storage" folder
  • History page: improvements, incoming / outgoing labels
  • Transfer: new success dialog
  • CMake build system improvements
  • Windows cross compilation support using Docker
  • Various minor bug and UI fixes
Note that you can find a full change log here.

Release notes (CLI)

Some highlights of this minor release are:
  • Add support for I2P and Tor seed nodes (--tx-proxy)
  • Add --ban-list daemon option to ban a list of IP addresses
  • Switch to Dandelion++ fluff mode if no out connections for stem mode
  • Fix a bug with relay_tx
  • Fix a rare readline related crash
  • Use /16 filtering on IPv4-within-IPv6 addresses
  • Give all hosts the same chance of being picked for connecting
  • Minor bugfixes
Some highlights of this major release are:
  • Support for CLSAG transaction format
  • Deterministic unlock times
  • Enforce claiming maximum coinbase amount
  • Serialization format changes
  • Remove most usage of Boost library
  • Always send raw transactions through P2P, don't use bootstrap daemon
  • Update InProofV1, OutProofV1, and ReserveProofV1 to V2
  • ASM optimizations for wallet refresh (macOS / Linux)
  • Randomized delay when forwarding txes from i2p/tor -> ipv4/6
  • New show_qr_code wallet command for CLI
  • Add ZMQ/Pub support for txpool_add and chain_main events
  • Various bug fixes and performance improvements
Note that you can find a full change log here.

Further remarks

  • A guide on pruning can be found here.
  • Ledger Monero users, please be aware that version 1.7.4 of the Ledger Monero App is required in order to properly use CLI or GUI v0.17.1.3.

Guides on how to get started (GUI)

https://github.com/monero-ecosystem/monero-GUI-guide/blob/mastemonero-GUI-guide.md
Older guides: (These were written for older versions, but are still somewhat applicable)
Sheep’s Noob guide to Monero GUI in Tails
https://medium.com/@Electricsheep56/the-monero-gui-wallet-broken-down-in-plain-english-bd2889b8c202

Ledger GUI guides:

How do I generate a Ledger Monero wallet with the GUI (monero-wallet-gui)?
How do I restore / recreate my Ledger Monero wallet?

Trezor GUI guides:

How do I generate a Trezor Monero wallet with the GUI (monero-wallet-gui)?
How to use Monero with Trezor - by Trezor
How do I restore / recreate my Trezor Monero wallet?

Ledger & Trezor CLI guides

Guides to resolve common issues (GUI)

My antivirus (AV) software blocks / quarantines the Monero GUI wallet, is there a work around I can utilize?
I am missing (not seeing) a transaction to (in) the GUI (zero balance)
Transaction stuck as “pending” in the GUI
How do I move the blockchain (data.mdb) to a different directory during (or after) the initial sync without losing the progress?
I am using the GUI and my daemon doesn't start anymore
My GUI feels buggy / freezes all the time
The GUI uses all my bandwidth and I can't browse anymore or use another application that requires internet connection
How do I change the language of the 25 word mnemonic seed in the GUI or CLI?
I am using remote node, but the GUI still syncs blockchain?

Using the GUI with a remote node

In the wizard, you can either select Simple mode or Simple mode (bootstrap) to utilize this functionality. Note that the GUI developers / contributors recommend to use Simple mode (bootstrap) as this mode will eventually use your own (local) node, thereby contributing to the strength and decentralization of the network. Lastly, if you manually want to set a remote node, you ought to use Advanced mode. A guide can be found here:
https://www.getmonero.org/resources/user-guides/remote_node_gui.html

Adding a new language to the GUI

https://github.com/monero-ecosystem/monero-translations/blob/masteweblate.md
If, after reading all these guides, you still require help, please post your issue in this thread and describe it in as much detail as possible. Also, feel free to post any other guides that could help people.
submitted by dEBRUYNE_1 to Monero [link] [comments]

# /r/Peloton Pre-TDF Survey 2020

Gentlemen, Ladies and those otherwise addressed - we know you've been waiting for a good thing, and the survey results are finally ready!
The answers were collected from you all during August 2020 with 1428 unique replies. That's a participation of 0.5% of all subscribers! That's really not too bad, when you keep in mind how popular these kind of surveys are. But we here at /peloton want to show you that this is all about presenting the information in the subreddit to cater better to our audience!
Updated after a few hours to include some more historical data the final edit that for some reason wasn't copied properly
Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2018 Mar 2018 Aug 2019 2020
Results 2013-06-12 2014-06-25 2015-08-07 2016-11-17 2018-03-06 2018-08-20 2019-07-22 2020-10-12
Replies 351 598 1395 892 630 928 986 1428
Without further ado, let's get cracking on the response

You and Cycling

1. Where do you live?

Country 2015 2016 2018 Mar 2018 Aug 2019 2020
USA 32% 28.3% 22.84% 25.32% 20.23% 24.59%
UK 18.6% 17.6% 14.70% 20.13% 15.48% 14.80%
Netherlands 6.4% 9.4% 11.50% 11.58% 10.01% 11.01%
Germany 3.73% 3.4% 4.95% 6.39% 7.84% 6.65%
Denmark 3.9% 3.6% 4.31% 3.79% 7.64% 5.79%
Belgium 3.8% 2.7% 8.15% 3.57% 5.78% 5.36%
France 2.01% 1.08% 2.88% 2.27% 5.26% 3.50%
Canada 4.9% 7% 6.39% 4.22% 4.95% 4.50%
Australia 5.2% 4.7% 3.83% 4.00% 4.33% 3.93%
Slovenia 0.73% 0.32% 1.30% 1.14% 2.14%
Norway 2.58% 1.8% 1.60% 1.95% 2.58% 1.86%
Sweden 1.08% 1.09% 1.44% 1.41% 1.75% 1.43%
Ireland 1.00% 1.09% 1.44% 1.19% 0.72% 1.36%
Portugal 1.65% 1.8% 2.40% 1.52% 1.34% 1.14%
Italy 1.45% 1.44% 0.65% 1.03% 1.07%
Largely the same picture as ever, with the US leading the way, the UK in second and then a sliding scale of Europeans countries. Slovenia continues to pick its way up the pile for obvious reasons!
World Map to demonstrate

2. What's your age?

u17 17-19 20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-50 51+ Total
2015 2.22% 12.04% 41.51% 24.66% 10.68% 4.87% 2.94% 1.08% 1395
2016 1.5% 8.9% 40.8% 24% 12% 5.4% 5.2% 2% 887
2018 Mar 1% 7.1% 33.5% 27.4% 16.2% 7% 5.7% 2.1% 617
2018 Aug 1.7% 9% 33.9% 26.4% 15.5% 7% 5% 1.5% 905
2019 1.5% 6.6% 33.2% 27.5% 16.4% 7.1% 5.8% 2% 972
2020 1.3% 6.8% 31.7% 28% 16.6% 7.2% 5% 2.5% 1420
Pretty much the same as last year, with the usual reddit demographics of majority 20 somethings dominating.

3. What's your gender?

'13 '14 '15 '16 '18 (1) '18 (2) '19 '20
Male 97.2% 97% 94.9% 93.4% 93.3% 93.6% 95.1% 94.9%
Female 2.8% 2.7% 4.8% 5.3% 5.3% 5.4% 3.7% 4.8%
Other - 0.33% 0.29% 0.78% 0.76% - -
Non-Binary - - - - 0.64% 0.99% 1.2% 0.4%
More normality here for reddit.

4. How much of the men's season do you watch/follow?

Type March '18 (%) August '18 (%) 2019 (%) 2020 (%)
Grand Tours 84.7 92.0 90.2 87.3
Monuments 79.1 74.9 79 75.9
WT Stage races 67.4 62.4 70.5 71.7
WT One day races 73.3 59.8 62.3 60.7
Non WT Stage races 32.6 16.7 17.4 25
Non WT One day races 34.8 13.7 17.4 20.7
Literally everything I can consume 35.9 18.1 21.1 27.1
Whilst GT following may be down (somehow), all the lower level stuff is up, which makes sense considering how desperate we have been for any racing during the season shutdown.

5. Do you maintain an interest in women's professional road racing?

Do you maintain an interest in women's professional road racing? '19 '20
Yes 49.8 49.2
No 50.2 50.8
Still very much a half/half interest in women's cycling on the subreddit.

6. How much of the women's season do you follow?

The following is true for the half of you that follows womens cycling.
How Much %
Just the biggest televised events 63.15%
Most of the live televised/delayed coverage stuff 29.08%
All televised racing 5.09%
Down to .Pro & beyond 2.69%

7. How long have you been watching cycling?

How Long %
Under a year 2,95%
1-3 years 19,50%
4-6 years 19,85%
7-9 years 14,10%
10-12 years 13,81%
13-15 years 7,15%
15-20 years 10,73%
20-25 years 6,17%
25 years + 5,75%
Simplified the years a little this time, but whilst we have a fair number of newbies, most people have picked the sport up since around 2013/14.

Sporting Favourites

8. Do you have like/dislike feelings about WT teams?

Once more, 14.4% of people really don't have feelings on the subject.
Of those that do:
AG2R Astana Bahrain Bora CCC Cofidis Quick-Step EF FDJ
Like 352 213 127 770 156 116 847 724 423
Meh 775 620 773 415 889 896 310 448 700
Dislike 52 356 263 31 112 141 71 37 53
Karma 300 -143 -70 739 44 -25 776 677 370
Israel Lotto Michelton Movistar NTT Ineos Jumbo Sunweb Trek UAE
Like 135 364 517 231 101 304 925 279 383 118
Meh 740 764 626 646 931 414 282 805 765 734
Dislike 302 40 52 326 121 562 53 97 42 331
Karma -167 324 465 -95 -20 -258 872 182 341 -213
So, the most popular team this year is Jumbo-Visma, followed by Quick-Step & Bora-hansgrohe. Least popular are Ineos & UAE.
As per usual, no one cares about NTT & CCC, with nearly 81% of users rating NTT as meh. Pretty damning stuff.
Lastly, we have the usual historical comparison of how teams have fared over time, normalised to respondents to that question on the survey.
Things to note then, firstly that the Astana redemption arc is over, seeing them back in the negative, maybe Fulgsangs spring issues helped aid that? The petrodollar teams of UAE & Bahrain are stubbornly negative too, with Israel keeping up the Katusha negative streak. Meanwhile, at the top end, EF & Jumbo go from strength to strength, whilst some others like Sunweb are sliding over time - their transfer policies no doubt helping that.

10. Do you ride a bike regularly?

Answer 2018Mar 2018Aug 2019 2020
For fun 61.5% 63.4% 59.9% 62.9%
For fitness 59.3% 59.6% 54.8% 59.8%
For commuting 46% 46% 45.6% 40%
For racing 20.6% 20.6% 15.9% 17.7%
No, I don't 14.2% 12.9% 14.8% 13.6%
Still a fairly small group of racers out of all of us

11. Out of the sports you practice, is cycling your favourite?

Yes No
58,29% 41,71%
A new addition to the survey prompted by a good point last time, just over half of us rate cycling as the favourite sport we actually do.

12. What other sports do you follow?

Sport #
Association Football / Soccer 50.78%
Formula 1 35.81%
American Football 26.27%
Basketball 22.46%
Track & Field 17.58%
Esports (yes, this includes DotA) 17.30%
Rugby 14.27%
Skiing 14.12%
Ice Hockey 13.63%
Baseball 12.15%
Motorsports (Not including F1) 10.59%
Cricket 10.52%
Tennis 9.53%
Chess 8.97%
Triathlon 8.69%
Biathlon 8.12%
Snooker 7.06%
Golf 6.92%
Swimming 6.85%
Ski Jumping 6.78%
Climbing 5.72%
Martial Arts 5.65%
Handball 5.44%
Darts 5.01%
Speed Skating 5.01%
Football always tops the charts, and Formula 1 continues to rank extremely highly among our userbase. Those who have a little following below 5% include Sailing, Fencing, Surfing, Boxing & Ultra-Running.
Other cycling disciplines
Sport #
Cyclocross 22.10%
Track Cycling 14.34%
MTB 8.97%
BMX 1.20%

13. Out of the sports you follow, is cycling your favourite sport?

Yes No
61.79% 38,21%
Good. Makes sense if you hang out here.

Subreddit stats

14. How often do you participate in a /Peloton Race Thread whilst watching a race?

2015 2016 2018Mar 2018Aug 2019 2020
I always participate in Race Threads during races 2.8% 2% 2.2% 4% 2.5% 3%
I follow Race Threads during races 41.7% 36.7% 38.1% 42.1% 42.5% 38.9%
I often participate in Race Threads during races 16.8% 19% 16.5% 18.9% 15.2% 13%
I rarely/never participate in Race Threads during races 38.7% 41.3% 43.1% 35% 39.8% 45.1%
Slightly less invested than before, reverting back to an older trade.

15. How do you watch Races?

Method 2018Mar 2018Aug 2019 2020
Pirate Streams 62% 46.5% 50.2% 47.9%
Free Local TV 55.7% 64.5% 59.6% 53.9%
Desperately scrabbling for Youtube highlights 37.9% 30.2% 28.2% 24.9%
Paid Streaming services 32.3% 35.4% 38.3% 46.3%
Year on year, paid streaming services go up - the increasing availability of live content legally continues to improve, and so do the numbers on the survey.

16. Where else do you follow races live (in addition to watching them)?

Type 2018Mar 2018Aug 2019 2020
/Peloton race threads 86.2% 83.4% 80.2% 76.9%
Twitter 30.5% 34.7% 33.3% 38.3%
PCS Liveticker - - 30.2% 32%
Official tracker (if available) 24%
The Cyclingnews liveticker 26% 23.5% 21.5% 18.9%
Sporza (site/ticker) 1.89% 9.5% 10.8% 10.8%
NOS Liveblog - 6.8% 7% 9.2%
Steephill 0.52% 13.5% 10.2% 8.2%
/Peloton discord 6.5% 5.4% 7.5% 7.2%
Other cycling forums 15.1% 8.1% 7.6% 7%
feltet.dk - 2.2% 5.4% 5.2%
Facebook 3.8% 5.4% 4% 4.2%
BBC Ticker - 3.5% 2.1% 4.1%
DirectVelo - 1.3% 1.6% 1.8%
Non Cycling Forums - 1.3% 1.2% 1.2%
/cyc/ - 1.3% 1% 0.6%
/peloton IRC ~0 0.8% 0.4% 0.5%
The PCS liveticker continues to have a strong following, whilst the cyclingnews ticker slowly slides into less usage over time.

17. Do you use /Peloton mostly in classic reddit or redesign when on the desktop?

Type 2018 Aug 2019 2020
Classic 75.1% 67.2% 46.2%
Redesign 24.9% 32.8% 53.8%
Time to abandon ship. The end has come.

18. With what version of reddit do you browse the sub?

Version 2019 2020
Official App 17.9 31.1
Desktop Classic 37.8 25.8
3rd Party App 18.3 17.2
Mobile Web 12.4 14.7
Desktop Redesign 13.7 11.2
Phone browsing is very much in vogue.

19. How did you find the sub?

How %
Through other forms of reddit, f.e. /bicycling 48.33%
Too long - can't remember 38.65%
Google search 9,11%
My friend told me 2,28%
I wanted to talk about my exercise bike 0.78%
Twitter 0.5%
Lantern Rouge Youtube 0.28%

Other bits and bobs

20. Did you think back in March we would see any more racing this year?

Yes No
52,81% 47,19%
Despite the threat, we have seen racing again

21. Will we manage to fulfill the rest of the UCI calendar without further Covid-19 issues postponing more races?

Yes No
25.3% 74.7%
Sorry to you 25%, Amstel, Roubaix & a bunch of other races have falled foul of COVID-19 related cancellations.

22. When did you become aware of Alexander Foliforov?

When %
Before the 2016 Giro 3,25%
22nd May, 2016 15,55%
On /pelotonmemes in 2020 21,13%
Who? 60,07%
If you didn't know of the man, watching him demolish the Giro field in 2016 on the stage 15 ITT should help to gain understanding

23. Who will win the 2020 Tour de France?

Rider %
Roglic 52,12%
Bernal 16,57%
Pinot 9,24%
Dumoulin 7,9%
N.Quintana 2,82%
Pogacar 1,41%
Richie Porte 0,35%
We can safely say that most of us were wrong about this one.
That's not a lot of confidence in Richie Porte either, the man who was to finish on the third spot of the podium. Alexander Foliforov (0,23%) had just a tiny number of votes less, and that man wasn't even in the race.

24. What for you was the defining cycling moment of the previous decade?

We had a lot of brilliant suggestions, but these were the clear five favourites when we tabulated the results.
Honorable mentions go to the Giro 2018, which had Tom Dumoulin winning, and of almost identical fascination to many of you - Tom Dumoulin going on someones porta-potty in the middle of the stage.
Little bit of recency bias perhaps, but that's better than ignoring that this was for the last decade and firmly insisting Tom Boonens 2005 WC win was the biggest thing. Special shoutout to almost all the Danes present in /peloton who voted for Mads Pedersens WC win last year. It's an understandable reaction.

25. Any suggestions for the Survey?

New Questions
We promise to feature one of these suggestions in the next survey
Suggestions
We will try to implement this. But it will also skew results.
About the Survey
The subscribers are torn on Women's cycling, nearly a 50/50 split there as the survey showed - The moderators at /peloton are firmly in the "more cycling is better" basket, and we will continue to get as good coverage of womens cycling as possible.
Are you trying to give the moderators PTSD? Because this is how you give the moderators PTSD.

26. Any suggestions for the sub?

ALSJFLKAJSLDKJAØLSJKD:M:CSAM)=#/()=#=/")¤=/)! - Your moderator seems to be out of function. Please stand by while we find you a new moderator
The Weekly threads are great for these types of questions, where several people can contribute and build up once it is understood which information is relevant.
Our experience is that "limited" will never be so, if we're going to moderate it fairly. Moderating is not a popularity contest, but believe it or not, we're actually trying to be as fair as possible. and for that, we need rules that are not subjective. Unless you have a stationary exercise bike.
All of these are good suggestions, but remember that all of you can also contribute - The mods are sometimes stretched thin, specially in the middle of hectic race schedules. It's easier if one of you has a way to contact a rider or a person of interest and can facilitate the initial communication.
We've worked on this! The Official Standard is now as follows: [Race Thread] 202x Race Name – Stage X (Class)
This sounds as a nice community project for the after-season, and hopefully many of you subscribers can contribute.
Come with suggestions on how to tidy it up!
We have chastised all the mods. They are now perfectly trained in gender-neutral pronouns. Be well, fellow being.
If we can implement this for hard liquor, you know we will.
The spoiler rule is one that is discussed frequently - in general - some users absolutely hate it, but a majority love it. Perhaps we'll include a question in the next survey to see how this divide is exactly.
We actually do - whenever there is a matter of life or death, we think public information is more important than a spoiler rule. But at the same time, we try to collect all the different posts into one main thread, so to keep things focused and letting very speculative posts meet with hard evidence from other sources.
This is a tough ask of the internet. While we can agree that voting should be done accordingly to what insights they bring, not subjective opinions, it is very hard to turn that type of thinking around. We can ask of you, our subscribers, that you please think twice about hitting that downvote button, and only do so because of you think a post is factually incorrect, not because it differs with your own subjective opinion.
That's the primary analysis of the survey! Feel free to contribute with how you experience things here!
submitted by PelotonMod to peloton [link] [comments]

An introduction to Linux through Windows Subsystem for Linux

I'm working as an Undergraduate Learning Assistant and wrote this guide to help out students who were in the same boat I was in when I first took my university's intro to computer science course. It provides an overview of how to get started using Linux, guides you through setting up Windows Subsystem for Linux to run smoothly on Windows 10, and provides a very basic introduction to Linux. Students seemed to dig it, so I figured it'd help some people in here as well. I've never posted here before, so apologies if I'm unknowingly violating subreddit rules.

An introduction to Linux through Windows Subsystem for Linux

GitHub Pages link

Introduction and motivation

tl;dr skip to next section
So you're thinking of installing a Linux distribution, and are unsure where to start. Or you're an unfortunate soul using Windows 10 in CPSC 201. Either way, this guide is for you. In this section I'll give a very basic intro to some of options you've got at your disposal, and explain why I chose Windows Subsystem for Linux among them. All of these have plenty of documentation online so Google if in doubt.

Setting up WSL

So if you've read this far I've convinced you to use WSL. Let's get started with setting it up. The very basics are outlined in Microsoft's guide here, I'll be covering what they talk about and diving into some other stuff.

1. Installing WSL

Press the Windows key (henceforth Winkey) and type in PowerShell. Right-click the icon and select run as administrator. Next, paste in this command:
dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux /all /norestart 
Now you'll want to perform a hard shutdown on your computer. This can become unecessarily complicated because of Window's fast startup feature, but here we go. First try pressing the Winkey, clicking on the power icon, and selecting Shut Down while holding down the shift key. Let go of the shift key and the mouse, and let it shutdown. Great! Now open up Command Prompt and type in
wsl --help 
If you get a large text output, WSL has been successfully enabled on your machine. If nothing happens, your computer failed at performing a hard shutdown, in which case you can try the age-old technique of just holding down your computer's power button until the computer turns itself off. Make sure you don't have any unsaved documents open when you do this.

2. Installing Ubuntu

Great! Now that you've got WSL installed, let's download a Linux distro. Press the Winkey and type in Microsoft Store. Now use the store's search icon and type in Ubuntu. Ubuntu is a Debian-based Linux distribution, and seems to have the best integration with WSL, so that's what we'll be going for. If you want to be quirky, here are some other options. Once you type in Ubuntu three options should pop up: Ubuntu, Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, and Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.
![Windows Store](https://theshepord.github.io/intro-to-WSL/docs/images/winstore.png) Installing plain-old "Ubuntu" will mean the app updates whenever a new major Ubuntu distribution is released. The current version (as of 09/02/2020) is Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS. The other two are older distributions of Ubuntu. For most use-cases, i.e. unless you're running some software that will break when upgrading, you'll want to pick the regular Ubuntu option. That's what I did.
Once that's done installing, again hit Winkey and open up Ubuntu. A console window should open up, asking you to wait a minute or two for files to de-compress and be stored on your PC. All future launches should take less than a second. It'll then prompt you to create a username and password. I'd recommend sticking to whatever your Windows username and password is so that you don't have to juggle around two different usepassword combinations, but up to you.
Finally, to upgrade all your packages, type in
sudo apt-get update 
And then
sudo apt-get upgrade 
apt-get is the Ubuntu package manager, this is what you'll be using to install additional programs on WSL.

3. Making things nice and crispy: an introduction to UNIX-based filesystems

tl;dr skip to the next section
The two above steps are technically all you need for running WSL on your system. However, you may notice that whenever you open up the Ubuntu app your current folder seems to be completely random. If you type in pwd (for Print Working Directory, 'directory' is synonymous with 'folder') inside Ubuntu and hit enter, you'll likely get some output akin to /home/. Where is this folder? Is it my home folder? Type in ls (for LiSt) to see what files are in this folder. Probably you won't get any output, because surprise surprise this folder is not your Windows home folder and is in fact empty (okay it's actually not empty, which we'll see in a bit. If you type in ls -a, a for All, you'll see other files but notice they have a period in front of them. This is a convention for specifying files that should be hidden by default, and ls, as well as most other commands, will honor this convention. Anyways).
So where is my Windows home folder? Is WSL completely separate from Windows? Nope! This is Windows Subsystem for Linux after all. Notice how, when you typed pwd earlier, the address you got was /home/. Notice that forward-slash right before home. That forward-slash indicates the root directory (not to be confused with the /root directory), which is the directory at the top of the directory hierarchy and contains all other directories in your system. So if we type ls /, you'll see what are the top-most directories in your system. Okay, great. They have a bunch of seemingly random names. Except, shocker, they aren't random. I've provided a quick run-down in Appendix A.
For now, though, we'll focus on /mnt, which stands for mount. This is where your C drive, which contains all your Windows stuff, is mounted. So if you type ls /mnt/c, you'll begin to notice some familiar folders. Type in ls /mnt/c/Users, and voilà, there's your Windows home folder. Remember this filepath, /mnt/c/Users/. When we open up Ubuntu, we don't want it tossing us in this random /home/ directory, we want our Windows home folder. Let's change that!

4. Changing your default home folder

Type in sudo vim /etc/passwd. You'll likely be prompted for your Ubuntu's password. sudo is a command that gives you root privileges in bash (akin to Windows's right-click then selecting 'Run as administrator'). vim is a command-line text-editing tool, which out-of-the-box functions kind of like a crummy Notepad (you can customize it infinitely though, and some people have insane vim setups. Appendix B has more info). /etc/passwd is a plaintext file that historically was used to store passwords back when encryption wasn't a big deal, but now instead stores essential user info used every time you open up WSL.
Anyway, once you've typed that in, your shell should look something like this: ![vim /etc/passwd](https://theshepord.github.io/intro-to-WSL/docs/images/vim-etc-passwd.png)
Using arrow-keys, find the entry that begins with your Ubuntu username. It should be towards the bottom of the file. In my case, the line looks like
theshep:x:1000:1000:,,,:/home/pizzatron3000:/bin/bash 
See that cringy, crummy /home/pizzatron3000? Not only do I regret that username to this day, it's also not where we want our home directory. Let's change that! Press i to initiate vim's -- INSERT -- mode. Use arrow-keys to navigate to that section, and delete /home/ by holding down backspace. Remember that filepath I asked you to remember? /mnt/c/Users/. Type that in. For me, the line now looks like
theshep:x:1000:1000:,,,:/mnt/c/Users/lucas:/bin/bash 
Next, press esc to exit insert mode, then type in the following:
:wq 
The : tells vim you're inputting a command, w means write, and q means quit. If you've screwed up any of the above sections, you can also type in :q! to exit vim without saving the file. Just remember to exit insert mode by pressing esc before inputting commands, else you'll instead be writing to the file.
Great! If you now open up a new terminal and type in pwd, you should be in your Window's home folder! However, things seem to be lacking their usual color...

5. Importing your configuration files into the new home directory

Your home folder contains all your Ubuntu and bash configuration files. However, since we just changed the home folder to your Window's home folder, we've lost these configuration files. Let's bring them back! These configuration files are hidden inside /home/, and they all start with a . in front of the filename. So let's copy them over into your new home directory! Type in the following:
cp -r /home//. ~ 
cp stands for CoPy, -r stands for recursive (i.e. descend into directories), the . at the end is cp-specific syntax that lets it copy anything, including hidden files, and the ~ is a quick way of writing your home directory's filepath (which would be /mnt/c/Users/) without having to type all that in again. Once you've run this, all your configuration files should now be present in your new home directory. Configuration files like .bashrc, .profile, and .bash_profile essentially provide commands that are run whenever you open a new shell. So now, if you open a new shell, everything should be working normally. Amazing. We're done!

6. Tips & tricks

Here are two handy commands you can add to your .profile file. Run vim ~/.profile, then, type these in at the top of the .profile file, one per line, using the commands we discussed previously (i to enter insert mode, esc to exit insert mode, :wq to save and quit).
alias rm='rm -i' makes it so that the rm command will always ask for confirmation when you're deleting a file. rm, for ReMove, is like a Windows delete except literally permanent and you will lose that data for good, so it's nice to have this extra safeguard. You can type rm -f to bypass. Linux can be super powerful, but with great power comes great responsibility. NEVER NEVER NEVER type in rm -rf /, this is saying 'delete literally everything and don't ask for confirmation', your computer will die. Newer versions of rm fail when you type this in, but don't push your luck. You've been warned. Be careful.
export DISPLAY=:0 if you install XLaunch VcXsrv, this line allows you to open graphical interfaces through Ubuntu. The export sets the environment variable DISPLAY, and the :0 tells Ubuntu that it should use the localhost display.

Appendix A: brief intro to top-level UNIX directories

tl;dr only mess with /mnt, /home, and maybe maybe /usr. Don't touch anything else.
  • bin: binaries, contains Ubuntu binary (aka executable) files that are used in bash. Here you'll find the binaries that execute commands like ls and pwd. Similar to /usbin, but bin gets loaded earlier in the booting process so it contains the most important commands.
  • boot: contains information for operating system booting. Empty in WSL, because WSL isn't an operating system.
  • dev: devices, provides files that allow Ubuntu to communicate with I/O devices. One useful file here is /dev/null, which is basically an information black hole that automatically deletes any data you pass it.
  • etc: no idea why it's called etc, but it contains system-wide configuration files
  • home: equivalent to Window's C:/Users folder, contains home folders for the different users. In an Ubuntu system, under /home/ you'd find the Documents folder, Downloads folder, etc.
  • lib: libraries used by the system
  • lib64 64-bit libraries used by the system
  • mnt: mount, where your drives are located
  • opt: third-party applications that (usually) don't have any dependencies outside the scope of their own package
  • proc: process information, contains runtime information about your system (e.g. memory, mounted devices, hardware configurations, etc)
  • run: directory for programs to store runtime information.
  • srv: server folder, holds data to be served in protocols like ftp, www, cvs, and others
  • sys: system, provides information about different I/O devices to the Linux Kernel. If dev files allows you to access I/O devices, sys files tells you information about these devices.
  • tmp: temporary, these are system runtime files that are (in most Linux distros) cleared out after every reboot. It's also sort of deprecated for security reasons, and programs will generally prefer to use run.
  • usr: contains additional UNIX commands, header files for compiling C programs, among other things. Kind of like bin but for less important programs. Most of everything you install using apt-get ends up here.
  • var: variable, contains variable data such as logs, databases, e-mail etc, but that persist across different boots.
Also keep in mind that all of this is just convention. No Linux distribution needs to follow this file structure, and in fact almost all will deviate from what I just described. Hell, you could make your own Linux fork where /mnt/c information is stored in tmp.

Appendix B: random resources

EDIT: implemented various changes suggested in the comments. Thanks all!
submitted by HeavenBuilder to linux4noobs [link] [comments]

Beginner's critiques of Rust

Hey all. I've been a Java/C#/Python dev for a number of years. I noticed Rust topping the StackOverflow most loved language list earlier this year, and I've been hearing good things about Rust's memory model and "free" concurrency for awhile. When it recently came time to rewrite one of my projects as a small webservice, it seemed like the perfect time to learn Rust.
I've been at this for about a month and so far I'm not understanding the love at all. I haven't spent this much time fighting a language in awhile. I'll keep the frustration to myself, but I do have a number of critiques I wouldn't mind discussing. Perhaps my perspective as a beginner will be helpful to someone. Hopefully someone else has faced some of the same issues and can explain why the language is still worthwhile.
Fwiw - I'm going to make a lot of comparisons to the languages I'm comfortable with. I'm not attempting to make a value comparison of the languages themselves, but simply comparing workflows I like with workflows I find frustrating or counterintuitive.
Docs
When I have a question about a language feature in C# or Python, I go look at the official language documentation. Python in particular does a really nice job of breaking down what a class is designed to do and how to do it. Rust's standard docs are little more than Javadocs with extremely minimal examples. There are more examples in the Rust Book, but these too are super simplified. Anything more significant requires research on third-party sites like StackOverflow, and Rust is too new to have a lot of content there yet.
It took me a week and a half of fighting the borrow checker to realize that HashMap.get_mut() was not the correct way to get and modify a map entry whose value was a non-primitive object. Nothing in the official docs suggested this, and I was actually on the verge of quitting the language over this until someone linked Tour of Rust, which did have a useful map example, in a Reddit comment. (If any other poor soul stumbles across this - you need HashMap.entry().or_insert(), and you modify the resulting entry in place using *my_entry.value = whatever. The borrow checker doesn't allow getting the entry, modifying it, and putting it back in the map.)
Pit of Success/Failure
C# has the concept of a pit of success: the most natural thing to do should be the correct thing to do. It should be easy to succeed and hard to fail.
Rust takes the opposite approach: every natural thing to do is a landmine. Option.unwrap() can and will terminate my program. String.len() sets me up for a crash when I try to do character processing because what I actually want is String.chars.count(). HashMap.get_mut() is only viable if I know ahead of time that the entry I want is already in the map, because HashMap.get_mut().unwrap_or() is a snake pit and simply calling get_mut() is apparently enough for the borrow checker to think the map is mutated, so reinserting the map entry afterward causes a borrow error. If-else statements aren't idiomatic. Neither is return.
Language philosophy
Python has the saying "we're all adults here." Nothing is truly private and devs are expected to be competent enough to know what they should and shouldn't modify. It's possible to monkey patch (overwrite) pretty much anything, including standard functions. The sky's the limit.
C# has visibility modifiers and the concept of sealing classes to prevent further extension or modification. You can get away with a lot of stuff using inheritance or even extension methods to tack on functionality to existing classes, but if the original dev wanted something to be private, it's (almost) guaranteed to be. (Reflection is still a thing, it's just understood to be dangerous territory a la Python's monkey patching.) This is pretty much "we're all professionals here"; I'm trusted to do my job but I'm not trusted with the keys to the nukes.
Rust doesn't let me so much as reference a variable twice in the same method. This is the functional equivalent of being put in a straitjacket because I can't be trusted to not hurt myself. It also means I can't do anything.
The borrow checker
This thing is legendary. I don't understand how it's smart enough to theoretically track data usage across threads, yet dumb enough to complain about variables which are only modified inside a single method. Worse still, it likes to complain about variables which aren't even modified.
Here's a fun example. I do the same assignment twice (in a real-world context, there are operations that don't matter in between.) This is apparently illegal unless Rust can move the value on the right-hand side of the assignment, even though the second assignment is technically a no-op.
//let Demo be any struct that doesn't implement Copy. let mut demo_object: Option = None; let demo_object_2: Demo = Demo::new(1, 2, 3); demo_object = Some(demo_object_2); demo_object = Some(demo_object_2); 
Querying an Option's inner value via .unwrap and querying it again via .is_none is also illegal, because .unwrap seems to move the value even if no mutations take place and the variable is immutable:
let demo_collection: Vec = Vec::::new(); let demo_object: Option = None; for collection_item in demo_collection { if demo_object.is_none() { } if collection_item.value1 > demo_object.unwrap().value1 { } } 
And of course, the HashMap example I mentioned earlier, in which calling get_mut apparently counts as mutating the map, regardless of whether the map contains the key being queried or not:
let mut demo_collection: HashMap = HashMap::::new(); demo_collection.insert(1, Demo::new(1, 2, 3)); let mut demo_entry = demo_collection.get_mut(&57); let mut demo_value: &mut Demo; //we can't call .get_mut.unwrap_or, because we can't construct the default //value in-place. We'd have to return a reference to the newly constructed //default value, which would become invalid immediately. Instead we get to //do things the long way. let mut default_value: Demo = Demo::new(2, 4, 6); if demo_entry.is_some() { demo_value = demo_entry.unwrap(); } else { demo_value = &mut default_value; } demo_collection.insert(1, *demo_value); 
None of this code is especially remarkable or dangerous, but the borrow checker seems absolutely determined to save me from myself. In a lot of cases, I end up writing code which is a lot more verbose than the equivalent Python or C# just trying to work around the borrow checker.
This is rather tongue-in-cheek, because I understand the borrow checker is integral to what makes Rust tick, but I think I'd enjoy this language a lot more without it.
Exceptions
I can't emphasize this one enough, because it's terrifying. The language flat up encourages terminating the program in the event of some unexpected error happening, forcing me to predict every possible execution path ahead of time. There is no forgiveness in the form of try-catch. The best I get is Option or Result, and nobody is required to use them. This puts me at the mercy of every single crate developer for every single crate I'm forced to use. If even one of them decides a specific input should cause a panic, I have to sit and watch my program crash.
Something like this came up in a Python program I was working on a few days ago - a web-facing third-party library didn't handle a web-related exception and it bubbled up to my program. I just added another except clause to the try-except I already had wrapped around that library call and that took care of the issue. In Rust, I'd have to find a whole new crate because I have no ability to stop this one from crashing everything around it.
Pushing stuff outside the standard library
Rust deliberately maintains a small standard library. The devs are concerned about the commitment of adding things that "must remain as-is until the end of time."
This basically forces me into a world where I have to get 50 billion crates with different design philosophies and different ways of doing things to play nicely with each other. It forces me into a world where any one of those crates can and will be abandoned at a moment's notice; I'll probably have to find replacements for everything every few years. And it puts me at the mercy of whoever developed those crates, who has the language's blessing to terminate my program if they feel like it.
Making more stuff standard would guarantee a consistent design philosophy, provide stronger assurance that things won't panic every three lines, and mean that yes, I can use that language feature as long as the language itself is around (assuming said feature doesn't get deprecated, but even then I'd have enough notice to find something else.)
Testing is painful
Tests are definitively second class citizens in Rust. Unit tests are expected to sit in the same file as the production code they're testing. What?
There's no way to tag tests to run groups of tests later; tests can be run singly, using a wildcard match on the test function name, or can be ignored entirely using [ignore]. That's it.
Language style
This one's subjective. I expect to take some flak for this and that's okay.
submitted by crab1122334 to rust [link] [comments]

Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform Instruction Manual for Windows Powershell

Introduction to the manual
This manual is made to guide you step by step in setting up an OpenShift cloud environment on your own device. It will tell you what needs to be done, when it needs to be done, what you will be doing and why you will be doing it, all in one convenient manual that is made for Windows users. Although if you'd want to try it on Linux or MacOS we did add the commands necesary to get the CodeReady Containers to run on your operating system. Be warned however there are some system requirements that are necessary to run the CodeReady Containers that we will be using. These requirements are specified within chapter Minimum system requirements.
This manual is written for everyone with an interest in the Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform and has at least a basic understanding of the command line within PowerShell on Windows. Even though it is possible to use most of the manual for Linux or MacOS we will focus on how to do this within Windows.
If you follow this manual you will be able to do the following items by yourself:
● Installing the CodeReady Containers
● Updating OpenShift
● Configuring a CodeReady Container
● Configuring the DNS
● Accessing the OpenShift cluster
● Deploying the Mediawiki application
What is the OpenShift Container platform?
Red Hat OpenShift is a cloud development Platform as a Service (PaaS). It enables developers to develop and deploy their applications on a cloud infrastructure. It is based on the Kubernetes platform and is widely used by developers and IT operations worldwide. The OpenShift Container platform makes use of CodeReady Containers. CodeReady Containers are pre-configured containers that can be used for developing and testing purposes. There are also CodeReady Workspaces, these workspaces are used to provide any member of the development or IT team with a consistent, secure, and zero-configuration development environment.
The OpenShift Container Platform is widely used because it helps the programmers and developers make their application faster because of CodeReady Containers and CodeReady Workspaces and it also allows them to test their application in the same environment. One of the advantages provided by OpenShift is the efficient container orchestration. This allows for faster container provisioning, deploying and management. It does this by streamlining and automating the automation process.
What knowledge is required or recommended to proceed with the installation?
To be able to follow this manual some knowledge is mandatory, because most of the commands are done within the Command Line interface it is necessary to know how it works and how you can browse through files/folders. If you either don’t have this basic knowledge or have trouble with the basic Command Line Interface commands from PowerShell, then a cheat sheet might offer some help. We recommend the following cheat sheet for windows:
Https://www.sans.org/security-resources/sec560/windows\_command\_line\_sheet\_v1.pdf
Another option is to read through the operating system’s documentation or introduction guides. Though the documentation can be overwhelming by the sheer amount of commands.
Microsoft: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-serveadministration/windows-commands/windows-commands
MacOS
Https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/mac-terminal-commands-cheat-sheet/
Linux
https://ubuntu.com/tutorials/command-line-for-beginners#2-a-brief-history-lesson https://www.guru99.com/linux-commands-cheat-sheet.html
http://cc.iiti.ac.in/docs/linuxcommands.pdf
Aside from the required knowledge there are also some things that can be helpful to know just to make the use of OpenShift a bit simpler. This consists of some general knowledge on PaaS like Dockers and Kubernetes.
Docker https://www.docker.com/
Kubernetes https://kubernetes.io/

System requirements

Minimum System requirements

The minimum system requirements for the Red Hat OpenShift CodeReady Containers has the following minimum hardware:
Hardware requirements
Code Ready Containers requires the following system resources:
● 4 virtual CPU’s
● 9 GB of free random-access memory
● 35 GB of storage space
● Physical CPU with Hyper-V (intel) or SVM mode (AMD) this has to be enabled in the bios
Software requirements
The minimum system requirements for the Red Hat OpenShift CodeReady Containers has the following minimum operating system requirements:
Microsoft Windows
On Microsoft Windows, the Red Hat OpenShift CodeReady Containers requires the Windows 10 Pro Fall Creators Update (version 1709) or newer. CodeReady Containers does not work on earlier versions or other editions of Microsoft Windows. Microsoft Windows 10 Home Edition is not supported.
macOS
On macOS, the Red Hat OpenShift CodeReady Containers requires macOS 10.12 Sierra or newer.
Linux
On Linux, the Red Hat OpenShift CodeReady Containers is only supported on Red Hat Enterprise Linux/CentOS 7.5 or newer and on the latest two stable Fedora releases.
When using Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the machine running CodeReady Containers must be registered with the Red Hat Customer Portal.
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS or newer and Debian 10 or newer are not officially supported and may require manual set up of the host machine.

Required additional software packages for Linux

The CodeReady Containers on Linux require the libvirt and Network Manager packages to run. Consult the following table to find the command used to install these packages for your Linux distribution:
Table 1.1 Package installation commands by distribution
Linux Distribution Installation command
Fedora Sudo dnf install NetworkManager
Red Hat Enterprise Linux/CentOS Su -c 'yum install NetworkManager'
Debian/Ubuntu Sudo apt install qemu-kvm libvirt-daemonlibvirt-daemon-system network-manage

Installation

Getting started with the installation

To install CodeReady Containers a few steps must be undertaken. Because an OpenShift account is necessary to use the application this will be the first step. An account can be made on “https://www.openshift.com/”, where you need to press login and after that select the option “Create one now”
After making an account the next step is to download the latest release of CodeReady Containers and the pulled secret on “https://cloud.redhat.com/openshift/install/crc/installer-provisioned”. Make sure to download the version corresponding to your platform and/or operating system. After downloading the right version, the contents have to be extracted from the archive to a location in your $PATH. The pulled secret should be saved because it is needed later.
The command line interface has to be opened before we can continue with the installation. For windows we will use PowerShell. All the commands we use during the installation procedure of this guide are going to be done in this command line interface unless stated otherwise. To be able to run the commands within the command line interface, use the command line interface to go to the location in your $PATH where you extracted the CodeReady zip.
If you have installed an outdated version and you wish to update, then you can delete the existing CodeReady Containers virtual machine with the $crc delete command. After deleting the container, you must replace the old crc binary with a newly downloaded binary of the latest release.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc delete 
When you have done the previous steps please confirm that the correct and up to date crc binary is in use by checking it with the $crc version command, this should provide you with the version that is currently installed.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc version 
To set up the host operating system for the CodeReady Containers virtual machine you have to run the $crc setup command. After running crc setup, crc start will create a minimal OpenShift 4 cluster in the folder where the executable is located.
C:\Users\[username]>crc setup 

Setting up CodeReady Containers

Now we need to set up the new CodeReady Containers release with the $crc setup command. This command will perform the operations necessary to run the CodeReady Containers and create the ~/.crc directory if it did not previously exist. In the process you have to supply your pulled secret, once this process is completed you have to reboot your system. When the system has restarted you can start the new CodeReady Containers virtual machine with the $crc start command. The $crc start command starts the CodeReady virtual machine and OpenShift cluster.
You cannot change the configuration of an existing CodeReady Containers virtual machine. So if you have a CodeReady Containers virtual machine and you want to make configuration changes you need to delete the virtual machine with the $crc delete command and create a new virtual machine and start that one with the configuration changes. Take note that deleting the virtual machine will also delete the data stored in the CodeReady Containers. So, to prevent data loss we recommend you save the data you wish to keep. Also keep in mind that it is not necessary to change the default configuration to start OpenShift.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc setup 
Before starting the machine, you need to keep in mind that it is not possible to make any changes to the virtual machine. For this tutorial however it is not necessary to change the configuration, if you don’t want to make any changes please continue by starting the machine with the crc start command.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc start 
\ it is possible that you will get a Nameserver error later on, if this is the case please start it with* crc start -n 1.1.1.1

Configuration

It is not is not necessary to change the default configuration and continue with this tutorial, this chapter is here for those that wish to do so and know what they are doing. However, for MacOS and Linux it is necessary to change the dns settings.

Configuring the CodeReady Containers

To start the configuration of the CodeReady Containers use the command crc config. This command allows you to configure the crc binary and the CodeReady virtual machine. The command has some requirements before it’s able to configure. This requirement is a subcommand, the available subcommands for this binary and virtual machine are:
get, this command allows you to see the values of a configurable property
set/unset, this command can be used for 2 things. To display the names of, or to set and/or unset values of several options and parameters. These parameters being:
○ Shell options
○ Shell attributes
○ Positional parameters
view, this command starts the configuration in read-only mode.
These commands need to operate on named configurable properties. To list all the available properties, you can run the command $crc config --help.
Throughout this manual we will use the $crc config command a few times to change some properties needed for the configuration.
There is also the possibility to use the crc config command to configure the behavior of the checks that’s done by the $crc start end $crc setup commands. By default, the startup checks will stop with the process if their conditions are not met. To bypass this potential issue, you can set the value of a property that starts with skip-check or warn-check to true to skip the check or warning instead of ending up with an error.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config get C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config set C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config unset C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config view C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config --help 

Configuring the Virtual Machine

You can use the CPUs and memory properties to configure the default number of vCPU’s and amount of memory available for the virtual machine.
To increase the number of vCPU’s available to the virtual machine use the $crc config set CPUs . Keep in mind that the default number for the CPU’s is 4 and the number of vCPU’s you wish to assign must be equal or greater than the default value.
To increase the memory available to the virtual machine, use the $crc config set memory . Keep in mind that the default number for the memory is 9216 Mebibytes and the amount of memory you wish to assign must be equal or greater than the default value.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config set CPUs  C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config set memory > 

Configuring the DNS

Window / General DNS setup

There are two domain names used by the OpenShift cluster that are managed by the CodeReady Containers, these are:
crc.testing, this is the domain for the core OpenShift services.
apps-crc.testing, this is the domain used for accessing OpenShift applications that are deployed on the cluster.
Configuring the DNS settings in Windows is done by executing the crc setup. This command automatically adjusts the DNS configuration on the system. When executing crc start additional checks to verify the configuration will be executed.

macOS DNS setup

MacOS expects the following DNS configuration for the CodeReady Containers
● The CodeReady Containers creates a file that instructs the macOS to forward all DNS requests for the testing domain to the CodeReady Containers virtual machine. This file is created at /etc/resolvetesting.
● The oc binary requires the following CodeReady Containers entry to function properly, api.crc.testing adds an entry to /etc/hosts pointing at the VM IPaddress.

Linux DNS setup

CodeReady containers expect a slightly different DNS configuration. CodeReady Container expects the NetworkManager to manage networking. On Linux the NetworkManager uses dnsmasq through a configuration file, namely /etc/NetworkManageconf.d/crc-nm-dnsmasq.conf.
To set it up properly the dnsmasq instance has to forward the requests for crc.testing and apps-crc.testing domains to “192.168.130.11”. In the /etc/NetworkManageconf.d/crc-nm-dnsmasq.conf this will look like the following:
● Server=/crc. Testing/192.168.130.11
● Server=/apps-crc. Testing/192.168.130.11

Accessing the Openshift Cluster

Accessing the Openshift web console

To gain access to the OpenShift cluster running in the CodeReady virtual machine you need to make sure that the virtual machine is running before continuing with this chapter. The OpenShift clusters can be accessed through the OpenShift web console or the client binary(oc).
First you need to execute the $crc console command, this command will open your web browser and direct a tab to the web console. After that, you need to select the htpasswd_provider option in the OpenShift web console and log in as a developer user with the output provided by the crc start command.
It is also possible to view the password for kubeadmin and developer users by running the $crc console --credentials command. While you can access the cluster through the kubeadmin and developer users, it should be noted that the kubeadmin user should only be used for administrative tasks such as user management and the developer user for creating projects or OpenShift applications and the deployment of these applications.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc console C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc console --credentials 

Accessing the OpenShift cluster with oc

To gain access to the OpenShift cluster with the use of the oc command you need to complete several steps.
Step 1.
Execute the $crc oc-env command to print the command needed to add the cached oc binary to your PATH:
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc oc-env 
Step 2.
Execute the printed command. The output will look something like the following:
PS C:\Users\OpenShift> crc oc-env $Env:PATH = "CC:\Users\OpenShift\.crc\bin\oc;$Env:PATH" # Run this command to configure your shell: # & crc oc-env | Invoke-Expression 
This means we have to execute* the command that the output gives us, in this case that is:
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc oc-env | Invoke-Expression 
\this has to be executed every time you start; a solution is to move the oc binary to the same path as the crc binary*
To test if this step went correctly execute the following command, if it returns without errors oc is set up properly
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>.\oc 
Step 3
Now you need to login as a developer user, this can be done using the following command:
$oc login -u developer https://api.crc.testing:6443
Keep in mind that the $crc start will provide you with the password that is needed to login with the developer user.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>oc login -u developer https://api.crc.testing:6443 
Step 4
The oc can now be used to interact with your OpenShift cluster. If you for instance want to verify if the OpenShift cluster Operators are available, you can execute the command
$oc get co 
Keep in mind that by default the CodeReady Containers disables the functions provided by the commands $machine-config and $monitoringOperators.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>oc get co 

Demonstration

Now that you are able to access the cluster, we will take you on a tour through some of the possibilities within OpenShift Container Platform.
We will start by creating a project. Within this project we will import an image, and with this image we are going to build an application. After building the application we will explain how upscaling and downscaling can be used within the created application.
As the next step we will show the user how to make changes in the network route. We also show how monitoring can be used within the platform, however within the current version of CodeReady Containers this has been disabled.
Lastly, we will show the user how to use user management within the platform.

Creating a project

To be able to create a project within the console you have to login on the cluster. If you have not yet done this, this can be done by running the command crc console in the command line and logging in with the login data from before.
When you are logged in as admin, switch to Developer. If you're logged in as a developer, you don't have to switch. Switching between users can be done with the dropdown menu top left.
Now that you are properly logged in press the dropdown menu shown in the image below, from there click on create a project.
https://preview.redd.it/ytax8qocitv51.png?width=658&format=png&auto=webp&s=72d143733f545cf8731a3cca7cafa58c6507ace2
When you press the correct button, the following image will pop up. Here you can give your project a name and description. We chose to name it CodeReady with a displayname CodeReady Container.
https://preview.redd.it/vtaxadwditv51.png?width=594&format=png&auto=webp&s=e3b004bab39fb3b732d96198ed55fdd99259f210

Importing image

The Containers in OpenShift Container Platform are based on OCI or Docker formatted images. An image is a binary that contains everything needed to run a container as well as the metadata of the requirements needed for the container.
Within the OpenShift Container Platform it’s possible to obtain images in a number of ways. There is an integrated Docker registry that offers the possibility to download new images “on the fly”. In addition, OpenShift Container Platform can use third party registries such as:
- Https://hub.docker.com/
- Https://catalog.redhat.com/software/containers/search
Within this manual we are going to import an image from the Red Hat container catalog. In this example we’ll be using MediaWiki.
Search for the application in https://catalog.redhat.com/software/containers/search

https://preview.redd.it/c4mrbs0fitv51.png?width=672&format=png&auto=webp&s=f708f0542b53a9abf779be2d91d89cf09e9d2895
Navigate to “Get this image”
Follow the steps to “create a registry service account”, after that you can copy the YAML.
https://preview.redd.it/b4rrklqfitv51.png?width=1323&format=png&auto=webp&s=7a2eb14a3a1ba273b166e03e1410f06fd9ee1968
After the YAML has been copied we will go to the topology view and click on the YAML button
https://preview.redd.it/k3qzu8dgitv51.png?width=869&format=png&auto=webp&s=b1fefec67703d0a905b00765f0047fe7c6c0735b
Then we have to paste in the YAML, put in the name, namespace and your pull secret name (which you created through your registry account) and click on create.
https://preview.redd.it/iz48kltgitv51.png?width=781&format=png&auto=webp&s=4effc12e07bd294f64a326928804d9a931e4d2bd
Run the import command within powershell
$oc import-image openshift4/mediawiki --from=registry.redhat.io/openshift4/mediawiki --confirm imagestream.image.openshift.io/mediawiki imported 

Creating and managing an application

There are a few ways to create and manage applications. Within this demonstration we’ll show how to create an application from the previously imported image.

Creating the application

To create an image with the previously imported image go back to the console and topology. From here on select container image.
https://preview.redd.it/6506ea4iitv51.png?width=869&format=png&auto=webp&s=c0231d70bb16c76cd131e6b71256e93550cc8b37
For the option image you'll want to select the “image stream tag from internal registry” option. Give the application a name and then create the deployment.
https://preview.redd.it/tk72idniitv51.png?width=813&format=png&auto=webp&s=a4e662cf7b96604d84df9d04ab9b90b5436c803c
If everything went right during the creating process you should see the following, this means that the application is successfully running.
https://preview.redd.it/ovv9l85jitv51.png?width=901&format=png&auto=webp&s=f78f350207add0b8a979b6da931ff29ffa30128c

Scaling the application

In OpenShift there is a feature called autoscaling. There are two types of application scaling, namely vertical scaling, and horizontal scaling. Vertical scaling is adding only more CPU and hard disk and is no longer supported by OpenShift. Horizontal scaling is increasing the number of machines.
One of the ways to scale an application is by increasing the number of pods. This can be done by going to a pod within the view as seen in the previous step. By either pressing the up or down arrow more pods of the same application can be added. This is similar to horizontal scaling and can result in better performance when there are a lot of active users at the same time.
https://preview.redd.it/s6i1vbcrltv51.png?width=602&format=png&auto=webp&s=e62cbeeed116ba8c55704d61a990fc0d8f3cfaa1
In the picture above we see the number of nodes and pods and how many resources those nodes and pods are using. This is something to keep in mind if you want to scale up your application, the more you scale it up, the more resources it will take up.

https://preview.redd.it/quh037wmitv51.png?width=194&format=png&auto=webp&s=5e326647b223f3918c259b1602afa1b5fbbeea94

Network

Since OpenShift Container platform is built on Kubernetes it might be interesting to know some theory about its networking. Kubernetes, on which the OpenShift Container platform is built, ensures that the Pods within OpenShift can communicate with each other via the network and assigns them their own IP address. This makes all containers within the Pod behave as if they were on the same host. By giving each pod its own IP address, pods can be treated as physical hosts or virtual machines in terms of port mapping, networking, naming, service discovery, load balancing, application configuration and migration. To run multiple services such as front-end and back-end services, OpenShift Container Platform has a built-in DNS.
One of the changes that can be made to the networking of a Pod is the Route. We’ll show you how this can be done in this demonstration.
The Route is not the only thing that can be changed and or configured. Two other options that might be interesting but will not be demonstrated in this manual are:
- Ingress controller, Within OpenShift it is possible to set your own certificate. A user must have a certificate / key pair in PEM-encoded files, with the certificate signed by a trusted authority.
- Network policies, by default all pods in a project are accessible from other pods and network locations. To isolate one or more pods in a project, it is possible to create Network Policy objects in that project to indicate the allowed incoming connections. Project administrators can create and delete Network Policy objects within their own project.
There is a search function within the Container Platform. We’ll use this to search for the network routes and show how to add a new route.
https://preview.redd.it/8jkyhk8pitv51.png?width=769&format=png&auto=webp&s=9a8762df5bbae3d8a7c92db96b8cb70605a3d6da
You can add items that you use a lot to the navigation
https://preview.redd.it/t32sownqitv51.png?width=1598&format=png&auto=webp&s=6aab6f17bc9f871c591173493722eeae585a9232
For this example, we will add Routes to navigation.
https://preview.redd.it/pm3j7ljritv51.png?width=291&format=png&auto=webp&s=bc6fbda061afdd0780bbc72555d809b84a130b5b
Now that we’ve added Routes to the navigation, we can start the creation of the Route by clicking on “Create route”.
https://preview.redd.it/5lgecq0titv51.png?width=1603&format=png&auto=webp&s=d548789daaa6a8c7312a419393795b52da0e9f75
Fill in the name, select the service and the target port from the drop-down menu and click on Create.
https://preview.redd.it/qczgjc2uitv51.png?width=778&format=png&auto=webp&s=563f73f0dc548e3b5b2319ca97339e8f7b06c9d6
As you can see, we’ve successfully added the new route to our application.
https://preview.redd.it/gxfanp2vitv51.png?width=1588&format=png&auto=webp&s=1aae813d7ad0025f91013d884fcf62c5e7d109f1
Storage
OpenShift makes use of Persistent Storage, this type of storage uses persistent volume claims(PVC). PVC’s allow the developer to make persistent volumes without needing any knowledge about the underlying infrastructure.
Within this storage there are a few configuration options:
It is however important to know how to manually reclaim the persistent volumes, since if you delete PV the associated data will not be automatically deleted with it and therefore you cannot reassign the storage to another PV yet.
To manually reclaim the PV, you need to follow the following steps:
Step 1: Delete the PV, this can be done by executing the following command
$oc delete  
Step 2: Now you need to clean up the data on the associated storage asset
Step 3: Now you can delete the associated storage asset or if you with to reuse the same storage asset you can now create a PV with the storage asset definition.
It is also possible to directly change the reclaim policy within OpenShift, to do this you would need to follow the following steps:
Step 1: Get a list of the PVs in your cluster
$oc get pv 
This will give you a list of all the PV’s in your cluster and will display their following attributes: Name, Capacity, Accesmodes, Reclaimpolicy, Statusclaim, Storageclass, Reason and Age.
Step 2: Now choose the PV you wish to change and execute one of the following command’s, depending on your preferred policy:
$oc patch pv  -p '{"spec":{"persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy":"Retain"}}' 
In this example the reclaim policy will be changed to Retain.
$oc patch pv  -p '{"spec":{"persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy":"Recycle"}}' 
In this example the reclaim policy will be changed to Recycle.
$oc patch pv  -p '{"spec":{"persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy":"Delete"}}' 
In this example the reclaim policy will be changed to Delete.

Step 3: After this you can check the PV to verify the change by executing this command again:
$oc get pv 

Monitoring

Within Red Hat OpenShift there is the possibility to monitor the data that has been created by your containers, applications, and pods. To do so, click on the menu option in the top left corner. Check if you are logged in as Developer and click on “Monitoring”. Normally this function is not activated within the CodeReady containers, because it uses a lot of resources (Ram and CPU) to run.
https://preview.redd.it/an0wvn6zitv51.png?width=228&format=png&auto=webp&s=51abf8cc31bd763deb457d49514f99ee81d610ec
Once you have activated “Monitoring” you can change the “Time Range” and “Refresh Interval” in the top right corner of your screen. This will change the monitoring data on your screen.
https://preview.redd.it/e0yvzsh1jtv51.png?width=493&format=png&auto=webp&s=b2c563635cfa60ea7ce2f9c146aa994df6aa1c34
Within this function you can also monitor “Events”. These events are records of important information and are useful for monitoring and troubleshooting within the OpenShift Container Platform.
https://preview.redd.it/l90vkmp3jtv51.png?width=602&format=png&auto=webp&s=4e97f14bedaec7ededcdcda96e7823f77ced24c2

User management

According to the documentation of OpenShift is a user, an entity that interacts with the OpenShift Container Platform API. These can be a developer for developing applications or an administrator for managing the cluster. Users can be assigned to groups, which set the permissions applied to all the group’s members. For example, you can give API access to a group, which gives all members of the group API access.
There are multiple ways to create a user depending on the configured identity provider. The DenyAll identity provider is the default within OpenShift Container Platform. This default denies access for all the usernames and passwords.
First, we’re going to create a new user, the way this is done depends on the identity provider, this depends on the mapping method used as part of the identity provider configuration.
for more information on what mapping methods are and how they function:
https://docs.openshift.com/enterprise/3.1/install_config/configuring_authentication.html
With the default mapping method, the steps will be as following
$oc create user  
Next up, we’ll create an OpenShift Container Platform Identity. Use the name of the identity provider and the name that uniquely represents this identity in the scope of the identity provider:
$oc create identity : 
The is the name of the identity provider in the master configuration. For example, the following commands create an Identity with identity provider ldap_provider and the identity provider username mediawiki_s.
$oc create identity ldap_provider:mediawiki_s 
Create a useidentity mapping for the created user and identity:
$oc create useridentitymapping :  
For example, the following command maps the identity to the user:
$oc create useridentitymapping ldap_provider:mediawiki_s mediawiki 
Now were going to assign a role to this new user, this can be done by executing the following command:
$oc create clusterrolebinding  \ --clusterrole= --user= 
There is a --clusterrole option that can be used to give the user a specific role, like a cluster user with admin privileges. The cluster admin has access to all files and is able to manage the access level of other users.
Below is an example of the admin clusterrole command:
$oc create clusterrolebinding registry-controller \ --clusterrole=cluster-admin --user=admin 

What did you achieve?

If you followed all the steps within this manual you now should have a functioning Mediawiki Application running on your own CodeReady Containers. During the installation of this application on CodeReady Containers you have learned how to do the following things:
● Installing the CodeReady Containers
● Updating OpenShift
● Configuring a CodeReady Container
● Configuring the DNS
● Accessing the OpenShift cluster
● Deploying an application
● Creating new users
With these skills you’ll be able to set up your own Container Platform environment and host applications of your choosing.

Troubleshooting

Nameserver
There is the possibility that your CodeReady container can't connect to the internet due to a Nameserver error. When this is encountered a working fix for us was to stop the machine and then start the CRC machine with the following command:
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc start -n 1.1.1.1 
Hyper-V admin
Should you run into a problem with Hyper-V it might be because your user is not an admin and therefore can’t access the Hyper-V admin user group.
  1. Click Start > Control Panel > Administration Tools > Computer Management. The Computer Management window opens.
  2. Click System Tools > Local Users and Groups > Groups. The list of groups opens.
  3. Double-click the Hyper-V Administrators group. The Hyper-V Administrators Properties window opens.
  4. Click Add. The Select Users or Groups window opens.
  5. In the Enter the object names to select field, enter the user account name to whom you want to assign permissions, and then click OK.
  6. Click Apply, and then click OK.

Terms and definitions

These terms and definitions will be expanded upon, below you can see an example of how this is going to look like together with a few terms that will require definitions.
Kubernetes is an open-source system for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. Openshift is based on Kubernetes.
Clusters are a collection of multiple nodes which communicate with each other to perform a set of operations.
Containers are the basic units of OpenShift applications. These container technologies are lightweight mechanisms for isolating running processes so that they are limited to interacting with only their designated resources.
CodeReady Container is a minimal, preconfigured cluster that is used for development and testing purposes.
CodeReady Workspaces uses Kubernetes and containers to provide any member of the development or IT team with a consistent, secure, and zero-configuration development environment.

Sources

  1. https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenteen/SSMKFH/com.ibm.apmaas.doc/install/hyperv_config_add_nonadmin_user_hyperv_usergroup.html
  2. https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/openshift_container_platform/4.5/
  3. https://docs.openshift.com/container-platform/3.11/admin_guide/manage_users.html
submitted by Groep6HHS to openshift [link] [comments]

Different Binary Sizes on compiling on different OS platforms

I am a beginner in cpp and i have written a small binary to view parquet files using Apache arrow Project. I have used Github Runners to compile for both linux and macos, however the resulting binary sizes are different. Macos binary is almost half the size of the linux and some features like reading file from compressed parquet files are throwing error in macos which are working in linux the problem seems to arise due to missing lz4 compression lib in macos.

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.16) project(parview) option(ARROW_LINK_SHARED "Link to the Arrow shared library" ON) set(CMAKE_CXX_STANDARD 17) set(ARROW_LINK_SHARED OFF) # Set the Type of Binary built set(Boost_USE_STATIC_LIBS ON) find_package(Boost COMPONENTS program_options REQUIRED) find_package(Arrow REQUIRED) message(STATUS "Arrow version: ${ARROW_VERSION}") message(STATUS "Arrow SO version: ${ARROW_FULL_SO_VERSION}") add_executable(parview src/main/main.cpp src/main/util/ParseParquet.cpp src/main/util/ParseParquet.h) if (ARROW_LINK_SHARED) target_link_libraries(parview ${Boost_LIBRARIES} parquet arrow_shared ) else() set(THREADS_PREFER_PTHREAD_FLAG ON) find_package(Threads REQUIRED) target_link_libraries(parview ${Boost_LIBRARIES} parquet arrow_static Threads::Threads ) endif() 

The Arrow build Script is as follows
#!/bin/bash if [ $OSTYPE = "darwin19" ] ; then export CPATH=/Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/DevelopePlatforms/MacOSX.platform/DevelopeSDKs/MacOSX.sdk/usinclude fi mkdir -p build/arrow cmake -S arrow/cpp/ -B build/arrow \ -DARROW_BUILD_SHARED=OFF \ -DARROW_BUILD_STATIC=ON \ -DARROW_CSV=ON \ -DARROW_DEPENDENCY_SOURCE=BUNDLED \ -DARROW_DEPENDENCY_USE_SHARED=OFF \ -DARROW_PARQUET=ON \ -DARROW_WITH_BROTLI=ON \ -DARROW_WITH_BZ2=ON \ -DARROW_WITH_LZ4=ON \ -DARROW_WITH_SNAPPY=ON \ -DARROW_WITH_ZLIB=ON \ -DARROW_WITH_ZSTD=ON make -j2 -C build/arrow make install -C build/arrow 
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Binary Options Trading for Beginners 2020! - YouTube

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